Original 1991 cover
In 1991 an MIT study of the Toyota Production System was published in The Machine That Changed the World How Lean Production Revolutionized the Global Car Wars, which first introduced the term Lean production. Some of the principles will still be familiar today:
Kaizen (改善) the practice of continuous improvement to reduce waste and improve operational efficiency of repetitive activities.
Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) a method of critical thinking & validation for continuous improvement.
Original 2011 cover
In 2011 Eric Ries published The Lean Startup, a combination of Lean and Agile principles to help entrepreneurs manage innovation risk when creating new products, services and business models under conditions of extreme uncertainty. Some of the principles are eerily familiar:
Build-Measure-Learn (sequence may vary) from PDCA. Continuous learning and validation.
Lean from manufacturing. Reduce waste or burn rate to improve operational efficiency on repetitive activity, such as the iterative validation of a business model, market or product.
Agile from software development. Short time frame iterations with frequent customer involvement for fast outcome adjustments, such as the iterative validation of a business model, market or product.
Automotive production may appear to be the operational antithesis of feckless fail fast and pivot tech startups, but they both want to optimise repetitive processes to reduce waste.
Whilst the definition of done, from good enough through excellence to delight will vary due to the sunk capex of manufacturing production lines vs. ephemeral software, the foundation for successful outcomes are the same: discipline in critical thinking & validation.